Achievable Gains of Directional Antennas in Outdoor-Indoor Propagation Environments

Rodolfo Feick, Mauricio Rodriguez, Luciano Ahumada, Reinaldo A. Valenzuela, Milan Derpich, Oscar Bahamonde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We present an empirically based model for the gain of an indoor antenna array. This corresponds to the re-parametrization of the Greenstein-Erceg model, as applied to 5 m-50 m narrowband outdoor-indoor links. Our model is applicable to a few adjacent tones in an OFDM femtocell system such as LTE. We find that as much as 14 out of 16 dB of antenna-gain are attainable even in rich indoor scattering conditions. At the same time, no larger fade margin is required when using the array vs. the omnidirectional antenna. To provide a reference for the observed results we consider a simple propagation model, which is analyzed theoretically and via simulation. This model is found to match our empirical results very well.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6942285
Pages (from-to)1447-1456
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Channel models
  • directive antennas
  • gain reduction factor
  • outdoor-indoor wireless links


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