Analyzing the impact of demand response and reserves in islands energy planning

Daniele Groppi, Felipe Feijoo, Antun Pfeifer, Davide Astiaso Garcia, Neven Duic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Small Islands usually rely on fossil fuels for their energy supply and face common challenges such as high energy costs and carbon dioxide emissions. For these reasons they represent interesting cases for analysing the transition towards a clean and secure energy system. Nevertheless, integrating non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in the power grid causes stability issues and this is particularly true for island grids. Such issue is not fully considered in long-term energy planning; indeed, an important factor that should be considered in order to ensure the reliability of the grid are Reserves. There are different types of Reserves depending on the reactiveness/response time and the duration of the service. In this paper, primary and secondary reserves have been analysed in order to plan the long-term energy transition of the small island of Favignana, Italy by means of the new version of H2RES, a Linear Programming single-objective optimisation model able to provide a long-term capacity investment and dispatching optimisation. It has been found that biomass generators are favoured to both photovoltaic and wind turbines for their ability to provide reserves and also decrease the unpredictability of the supply. Batteries and Electrolysers are also used mostly for reserve provision.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127716
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023


  • Ancillary services
  • Energy modelling
  • Energy planning
  • H2RES
  • Island flexibility
  • Smart energy island


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