Lime is one of the effective agents for reducing the phytoavailability of metals in contaminated acidic soils. However, previous studies have shown that lime alone cannot reduce metal phytotoxicity to the desired extent in such soils. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of different amendment combinations (lime with and without Feand/or Mn-based amendments) on plant growth. A sample of Histosol (0-5 cm) was collected around a Cu/Ni smelter near Monchegorsk, Murmansk region, exhibiting total Cu and Ni concentrations in the soil of 6418 and 2293 mg kg-1, respectively. Likewise, a sample of forest litter (0-15 cm) was collected around a Cu smelter near Revda, Sverdlovsk region, exhibiting total Cu concentration in the soil of 5704 mg kg-1. Fe-Mn oxides were sourced from ferromanganese nodules in the Gulf of Finland, and iron powder was used as a precursor for iron oxides. Perennial ryegrass was grown in pots for 21 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Two dolomite doses were tested: 5% w/w (giving a soil pH of 6.5) and 20% w/w (giving a soil pH of 7.4). Over-liming stunted plant growth; therefore, the dolomite dose was set at 5% in the further experiments of the study. Importantly, the addition of 0.5% and 1% of Fe-Mn-oxides or iron powder did not improve the efficacy of the lime amendment in promoting plant growth in the soils. Therefore, the issue of reducing plant exposure to metals remained unresolved in the soils under study.
- Heavy metals
- Lolium perenne