Chitosan Microparticles Enhance the Intestinal Release and Immune Response of an Immune Stimulant Peptide in Oncorhynchus mykiss

Iván González-Chavarría, Francisco J. Roa, Felipe Sandoval, Carolina Muñoz-Flores, Tomas Kappes, Jannel Acosta, Romina Bertinat, Claudia Altamirano, Ariel Valenzuela, Oliberto Sánchez, Katherina Fernández, Jorge R. Toledo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aquaculture industry is constantly increasing its fish production to provide enough products to maintain fish consumption worldwide. However, the increased production generates susceptibility to infectious diseases that cause losses of millions of dollars to the industry. Conventional treatments are based on antibiotics and antivirals to reduce the incidence of pathogens, but they have disadvantages, such as antibiotic resistance generation, antibiotic residues in fish, and environmental damage. Instead, functional foods with active compounds, especially antimicrobial peptides that allow the generation of prophylaxis against infections, provide an interesting alternative, but protection against gastric degradation is challenging. In this study, we evaluated a new immunomodulatory recombinant peptide, CATH–FLA, which is encapsulated in chitosan microparticles to avoid gastric degradation. The microparticles were prepared using a spray drying method. The peptide release from the microparticles was evaluated at gastric and intestinal pH, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the biological activity of the formulation was evaluated by measuring the expression of il-1β, il-8, ifn-γ, Ifn-α, and mx1 in the head kidney and intestinal tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results showed that the chitosan microparticles protect the CATH–FLA recombinant peptide from gastric degradation, allowing its release in the intestinal portion of rainbow trout. The microparticle-protected CATH–FLA recombinant peptide increased the expression of il-1β, il-8, ifn-γ, ifn-α, and mx1 in the head kidney and intestine and improved the antiprotease activity in rainbow trout. These results suggest that the chitosan microparticle/CATH–FLA recombinant peptide could be a potential prophylactic alternative to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of infectious diseases in aquaculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14685
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume24
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • chitosan microparticles
  • immunostimulant peptides
  • rainbow trout

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