Chronic stress inhibits growth and induces proteolytic mechanisms through two different nonoverlapping pathways in the skeletal muscle of a teleost fish

Cristián A. Valenzuela, Rodrigo Zuloaga, LUIS ALBERTO MERCADO VIANCO, Ingibjörg Eir Einarsdottir, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic stress detrimen-tally affects animal health and homeostasis, with somatic growth, and thus skeletal muscle, being particularly affected. A detailed understanding of the underlying endocrine and molecular mechanisms of how chronic stress affects skeletal muscle growth remains lacking. To address this issue, the present study assessed primary (plasma corti-sol), secondary (key components of the GH/IGF system, muscular proteolytic pathways, and apoptosis), and tertiary (growth perfor-mance) stress responses in fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) exposed to crowding chronic stress. Levels of plasma cortisol, glucocorticoid receptor 2 (gr2), and its target genes (klf15 and redd1) mRNA increased significantly only at 4 wk of crowding (P < 0.05). The components of the GH/IGF system, including ligands, receptors, and their signaling pathways, were significantly downregulated at 7 wk of crowding (P < 0.05). Interestingly, chronic stress upregulated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the intrinsic apoptosis pathways at 4wk (P < 0.01), whereas autophagy was only significantly activated at 7 wk (P < 0.05), and meanwhile the ubiquitin-proteasome and the apoptosis pathways returned to control levels. Overall growth was inhibited in fish in the 7-wk chronic stress trial (P < 0.05). In conclusion, chronic stress directly affects muscle growth and down-regulates the GH/IGF system, an action through which muscular catabolic mechanisms are promoted by two different and nonoverlapping proteolytic pathways. These findings provide new information on molecular mechanisms involved in the negative effects that chronic stress has on muscle anabolic/catabolic signaling balance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R102-R113
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume314
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Autophagy
  • Muscle growth
  • Stress
  • Ubiquitin-proteasome

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