Consistency relations involving the soft limit of the (n + 1)-correlation functions of dark matter and galaxy overdensities can be obtained, both in real and redshift space, thanks to the symmetries enjoyed by the Newtonian equations of motion describing the dark matter and galaxy fluids coupled through gravity. We study the implications of such symmetries for the theory of galaxy bias and for the theories of modified gravity. We find that the invariance of the fluid equations under a coordinate transformation that induces a long-wavelength velocity constrains the bias to depend only on a set of invariants, while the symmetry of such equations under Lifshitz scalings in the case of matter domination allows one to compute the time-dependence of the coefficients in the bias expansion. We also find that theories of modified gravity which violate the equivalence principle induce a violation of the consistency relation which may be a signature for their observation. Thus, given adiabatic Gaussian initial conditions, the observation of a deviation from the consistency relation for galaxies would signal a breakdown of the so-called non-local Eulerian bias model or the violation of the equivalence principle in the underlying theory of gravity.