Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Teachers during the Second COVID-19 Wave

Pablo A. Lizana, Lydia Lera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


There is a strong background indicating that the teaching profession is one of the most stressful and that their mental health has deteriorated even further during the pandemic. However, there is a little background about the impact of the COVID-19 infection peaks and teachers’ mental health. To this end, 313 teachers were recruited. Via online questionnaires, an evaluation was performed on their depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms on the DASS-21 scale. Teachers’ sociodemographic and socio-personal data were also analyzed. A binary logistic regression was used to analyze the variables which could be associated with each of the symptoms. High rates of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were observed among teachers (67%, 73%, and 86%, respectively). Among teachers who were affected by the work–family balance (89%), there was also an increased risk of symptoms of anxiety (OR: 3.2) and stress (OR: 3.5). Depression symptom risk was higher among women (OR: 2.2), and teachers under 35 years old had a risk of presenting all three symptoms (depression OR: 2.2; anxiety OR: 4.0; stress OR 3.0). In contrast, teaching in private educational establishments was a protective factor for anxiety symptoms (OR: 0.3). The results suggest that the second COVID-19 wave profoundly affected teachers’ mental health. Urgent interventions are thus needed to aid teachers’ mental health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5968
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 May 2022


  • COVID-19
  • age
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • gender
  • school
  • stress
  • teachers


Dive into the research topics of 'Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Teachers during the Second COVID-19 Wave'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this