Detection of Human Gait Phases Using Textile Pressure Sensors: A Low Cost and Pervasive Approach

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Human gait analysis is a standard method used for detecting and diagnosing diseases associated with gait disorders. Wearable technologies, due to their low costs and high portability, are increasingly being used in gait and other medical analyses. This paper evaluates the use of low-cost homemade textile pressure sensors to recognize gait phases. Ten sensors were integrated into stretch pants, achieving an inexpensive and pervasive solution. Nevertheless, such a simple fabrication process leads to significant sensitivity variability among sensors, hindering their adoption in precision-demanding medical applications. To tackle this issue, we evaluated the textile sensors for the classification of gait phases over three machine learning algorithms for time-series signals, namely, random forest (RF), time series forest (TSF), and multi-representation sequence learner (Mr-SEQL). Training and testing signals were generated from participants wearing the sensing pants in a test run under laboratory conditions and from an inertial sensor attached to the same pants for comparison purposes. Moreover, a new annotation method to facilitate the creation of such datasets using an ordinary webcam and a pose detection model is presented, which uses predefined rules for label generation. The results show that textile sensors successfully detect the gait phases with an average precision of 91.2% and 90.5% for RF and TSF, respectively, only 0.8% and 2.3% lower than the same values obtained from the IMU. This situation changes for Mr-SEQL, which achieved a precision of 79% for the textile sensors and 36.8% for the IMU. The overall results show the feasibility of using textile pressure sensors for human gait recognition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2825
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • data annotation
  • gait analysis
  • multivariate time series classification
  • smart clothes
  • supervised machine learning
  • textile sensors


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