Dietary Inclusion of Hydrolyzed Debaryomyces hansenii Yeasts Modulates Physiological Responses in Plasma and Immune Organs of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Parr Exposed to Acute Hypoxia Stress

Byron Morales-Lange, Brankica Djordjevic, Ashwath Gaudhaman, Charles Mc Lean Press, Jake Olson, Liv Torunn Mydland, Luis Mercado, Mónica Imarai, Mathieu Castex, Margareth Øverland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Stress related to salmon aquaculture practices (handling, sub-optimal nutrition, diseases, and environmental problems) may compromise fish welfare. This study describes the effects of two hydrolyzed Debaryomyces hansenii yeast-based products (LAN4 and LAN6) on physiological and immune responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr exposed to short hypoxia stress. A commercial-like diet (control diet: CD) and two experimental diets (CD supplemented with 0.1% of either component LAN4 or LAN6) were fed to fish for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding experiment, fish were exposed to 1-min hypoxia and samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-stress. Results showed that plasma cortisol reached a peak at 1 h post-stress in CD and LAN6 groups, whereas no significant increase in cortisol levels was detected in the LAN4 group. Moreover, the LAN6 group enhanced IL-10 responses to hypoxia, when compared to the control and LAN4 group. This suggests a regulation of immunosuppressive profiles in fish fed LAN4. Hypoxia stress increased TNFα in all groups, which indicates that fish may compensate for the short-term stress response, by modulating innate immune molecules. The apparent suppression of hypoxia responses in the LAN4 group coincided with the detection of differences in goblet cells size and Muc-like proteins production in DI; and upregulation (1 h post-stress) of pathways related to oxygen transport, hemoglobin complex, and glutathione transferase activity and the downregulation of fatty acid metabolism (6 h post-stress) in gills. To conclude, a 1-min hypoxia stress exposure affects the response to stress and immunity; and D. hansenii-based yeast products are promising components in functional aquafeeds for salmon due to their ability to counteract possible consequences of hypoxic stress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number836810
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume13
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • blood
  • distal intestine
  • gill
  • immunological markers
  • RNAseq
  • short-term stress
  • yeast-based products

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