Path gain and effective directional gain in azimuth in urban canyons from actual rooftop base station sites are characterized based on a massive data set of 3000 links on 12 streets in two cities, with over 21 million individual continuous-wave power measurements at 28 GHz using vertically polarized antennas. Large street-to-street path gain variation is found, with median street path gain varying over 30 dB at similar distances. Coverage in the street directly illuminated by a roof edge antenna is found to suffer an average excess loss of 11 dB relative to free space at 200 m, with an empirical slope-intercept fit model representing the data with 7.1 dB standard deviation. Offsetting the base antenna 5 m away from the roof edge, as is common in macrocellular deployments, introduces an additional average loss of 15 dB at 100 m, but this additional loss reduces with distance. Around the corner loss is well modeled by a diffraction formula with an empirically obtained diffraction coefficient. Effective azimuthal gain degradation due to scatter is limited to 2 dB for 90% of data, supporting effective use of high-gain antennas in urban street canyons.
- Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication
- mm-wave measurements
- mm-wave propagation
- propagation losses
- radio propagation