This documentary research synthesizes the scientific production carried out between 2013 and 2018 about the meanings of body and corporeity in the school context and other contexts. The references come from the Scopus databases, the Latin American Repositories Network of the University of Chile, and the online repositories of eight Chilean University Libraries. The searches were conducted in the areas of social sciences, arts and humanities, and psychology through the following descriptors: Corpo, body, cuerpo and educación, cuerpo and educación física, corporalidad, corporeidad and imagen corporal, assessment, and conceptions and representations. One hundred Scopus articles were selected, and 152 documents were captured from the repositories. The findings showed seven focuses of research interest referring to studying the body in the school context, the theoretical-methodological approach, a line in the progress of approach to the subjective dimension of the body, body practices outside of school, representation of the body in the media, the sociocultural view of the body, and finally, the study of sex, gender, and the body. In conclusion, in international references, the positivist paradigm prevails with a biomedical conception that emanates from different contexts. In the Latin American references, the body study associated with the school prevails; although, from a transversal view, there are indications of generating knowledge about the subjective and expressive dimension of the body. It is still necessary to investigate listening to the diversity of people as social actors in view of potential improvements in educational policies that protect the dignity and social justice of the bodies.