Pentacyclic triterpenes, including lupeol, α- amyrin, and β-amyrin, present a large range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and gastroprotective properties. The phytochemistry of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) tissues has been widely described. Plant biotechnology offers an alternative for secondary metabolite production and several active plant ingredients are already synthesized through in vitro cultures. This study aimed to establish a suitable protocol for cell growth and to determine the accumulation of α-amyrin and lupeol in cell suspension cultures of T. officinale under different culture conditions. To this end, inoculum density (0.2% to 8% (w/v)), inoculum age (2- to 10-week-old), and carbon source concentration (1%, 2.3%, 3.2%, and 5.5% (w/v)) were investigated. Hypocotyl explants of T. officinale were used for callus induction. Age, size, and sucrose concentrations were statistically significant in cell growth (fresh and dry weight), cell quality (aggregation, differentiation, viability), and triterpenes yield. The best conditions for establishing a suspension culture were achieved by using a 6-week-old callus at 4% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) of sucrose concentration. Results indicate that 0.04 (±0.02) α-amyrin and 0.03 (±0.01) mg/g lupeol can be obtained in suspension culture under these starting conditions at the 8th week of culture. The results of the present study provide a backdrop for future studies in which an elicitor could be incorporated to increase the large-scale production of α-amyrin and lupeol from T. officinale.
- cell suspension
- secondary metabolite