Effect of the drip flow rate with multiple manifolds on the homogeneity of the delivered volume

Anderson F. Wamser, Isidro Morales, Juan E. Álvaro, Miguel Urrestarazu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The reliable volumetric distribution of fertigation is vital for sustainable precision agriculture because it not only evenly distributes water in the spatial region where it is needed but also ensures rhizosphere nutrient utilization efficiency, electrical conductivity, and pH, thus yielding better production and reduced environmental emissions. We evaluated the supply delivered by two and four manifolds from a self-compensating antidrain dripper-emitter with flow rates of 2, 3, 4, and 8 L/h. Spikes with regulators (T1) and without regulators (T0) were tested. Connecting multiple manifolds to a single dripper with T1 spikes is not recommended. Drippers with low flow rates of 2 and 3 L/h are not suitable for multiple distribution, but drippers with flow rates from 4-8 L/h having two or four manifolds with T1 spikes produce adequate fertigation distribution for precision agriculture (≤5%, coefficient of variation percentage). The combination of an 8 L/h dripper with four or two regulated manifold lines supplies fertigation distribution homogeneity equivalent to that produced by four 2 L/h drippers or two 4 L/h drippers with only one manifold, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04014048
JournalJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Environmental engineering
  • Fertigation uniformity
  • Green wall
  • Hydraulic engineering
  • Water distribution parameters


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