One of the challenges of school climate policies has been to promote dialogical conflict resolution by reducing punitive practices and encouraging student participation. However, exclusionary punitive practices are still being used, and in Chile, they are considered acceptable forms of conflict resolution. In this study, we analyzed the association between students' reports of punitive and democratic school climate in a sample of 2459 eighth graders (mean age = 13.56, SD = 0.84) from 128 Chilean schools. Multilevel analyses showed that a higher perception of punitive practices and higher academic performance were associated with a higher perception of an inclusive, democratic, and peaceful school climate. The perception of a higher school-level frequency of punishment was associated with a higher perception of an inclusive and democratic school climate. We discuss the implications of these findings for an authoritarian school culture.
- school climate
- school discipline