The phylogenetic assignment of archaeal communities is constantly evolving, and the recent discovery of new phyla that grouped into superphyla has provided novel insights into archaeal ecology and evolution in ecosystems. In intertidal sediments, archaea are known to be involved in key functional processes such as organic matter turnover, but the ecological relevance of the rarest archaeal groups is poorly investigated, due partly to the lack of cultivated members. The high resolution of microbial diversity provided by high-throughput sequencing technologies now allows the rare biosphere to be described. In this work, we focused on the archaeal C3 group, showing that this phylum is not only present (at the DNA level) independently of sediment depth but also active (at the RNA level) in specific sediment niches depending on vertical physicochemical gradients. Moreover, we highlight the ambiguous phylogenetic affiliation of this group, indicating the need of further research to get new insights into the role of the C3 group.