We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background in the framework of the non-minimal torsion-matter coupling extension of f(T) gravity. We are concerned with the effects of the non-minimal coupling term on the growth of matter overdensities. Under the quasi-static approximation, we derive the equation which governs the evolution of matter density perturbations, and it is shown that the effective gravitational coupling ‘constant’ acquires an additional contribution due to the non-minimal matter-torsion coupling term. In this way, this result generalizes those previously obtained for the growth of matter overdensities in the case of minimal f(T) gravity. In order to get a feeling of our results we apply them to the important case of a power-law coupling function, which we assume to be the responsible for the late-time accelerated expansion in the dark energy regime. Thereby, analytic solutions for the matter density perturbation equation in the regime of dark matter dominance and the dark energy epoch are obtained, along with a complete numerical integration of this equation. In particular, we show that this model predicts a growth index larger than those obtained for ΛCDM model, indicating therefore a smaller growth rate. Concomitantly, we show that the model at hand is potentially capable in alleviating the existing σ8-tension, being that it can provide us a fσ8 prediction which is ∼ 4–5% below the respective prediction of concordance model.