Growing evidence indicates that prorenin receptor (PRR) is upregulated in collecting duct (CD) of diabetic kidney. Prorenin is secreted by the principal CD cells, and is the natural ligand of the PRR. PRR activation stimulates fibrotic factors, including fibronectin, collagen, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) contributing to tubular fibrosis. However, whether high glucose (HG) contributes to this effect is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that HG increases the abundance of PRR at the plasma membrane of the CD cells, thus contributing to the stimulation of downstream fibrotic factors, including TGF-β, collagen I, and fibronectin. We used streptozotocin (STZ) male Sprague–Dawley rats to induce hyperglycemia for 7 days. At the end of the study, STZ-induced rats showed increased prorenin, renin, and angiotensin (Ang) II in the renal inner medulla and urine, along with augmented downstream fibrotic factors TGF-β, collagen I, and fibronectin. STZ rats showed upregulation of PRR in the renal medulla and preferential distribution of PRR on the apical aspect of the CD cells. Cultured CD M-1 cells treated with HG (25 mM for 1 h) showed increased PRR in plasma membrane fractions compared to cells treated with normal glucose (5 mM). Increased apical PRR was accompanied by upregulation of TGF-β, collagen I, and fibronectin, while PRR knockdown prevented these effects. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments in M-1 cells demonstrated augmented prorenin activity during HG conditions. The data indicate HG stimulates profibrotic factors by inducing PRR translocation to the plasma membrane in CD cells, which in perspective, might be a novel mechanism underlying the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetes mellitus.