Hybrid cooling method of axial-flux permanent-magnet machines for vehicle applications

M. Polikarpova, P. Ponomarev, P. Lindh, I. Petrov, W. Jara, V. Naumanen, J. A. Tapia, J. Pyrhönen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Thermal properties are a key issue in many applications associated with electrical machines. Because of its special configuration, an axial-flux electrical machine usually uses self-ventilation. However, this cooling method has a significant impact degrading the machine operating characteristics, and thus, an independent cooling system is desirable. The focus of this paper is on the steady-state thermal modeling and laboratory testing of an axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) electrical machine intended for a traction application. The proposed hybrid cooling arrangement consists of a frame cooling circuit with a water flow inside, a set of copper bars inserted in the teeth, and a segment of potting material around the end windings. Computational fluid dynamics and finite-element analysis are applied for the preliminary design. This paper provides experimental verification of the simulation results on a 100-kW AFPM electrical machine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7181673
Pages (from-to)7382-7390
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrical machines
  • hybrid cooling method
  • liquid jacket
  • thermal analysis


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