Photolyases are enzymes that repair DNA damage caused by solar radiation. Due to their photorepair potential, photolyases added in topical creams and used in medical treatments has allowed to reverse skin damage and prevent the development of different diseases, including actinic keratosis, premature photoaging and cancer. For this reason, research has been oriented to the study of new photolyases performing in extreme environments, where high doses of UV radiation may be a key factor for these enzymes to have perfected their photorepair potential. Generally, the extracted enzymes are first encapsulated and then added to the topical creams to increase their stability. However, other well consolidated immobilization methods are interesting strategies to be studied that may improve the biocatalyst performance. This review aims to go through the different Antarctic organisms that have exhibited photoreactivation activity, explaining the main mechanisms of photolyase DNA photorepair. The challenges of immobilizing these enzymes on porous and nanostructured supports is also discussed. The comparison of the most reported immobilization methods with respect to the structure of photolyases show that both covalent and ionic immobilization methods produced an increase in their stability. Moreover, the use of nanosized materials as photolyase support would permit the incorporation of the biocatalyst into the target cell, which is a technological requirement that photolyase based biocatalysts must fulfill.
|Journal||Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology|
|State||Published - Feb 2021|
- Enzyme immobilization
- Photoreactivation activity
- Skin cancer prevention