Integrative overview of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and their possible applications in COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment

Norma A. Valdez-Cruz, Enrique García-Hernández, Clara Espitia, Laura Cobos-Marín, Claudia Altamirano, Carlos G. Bando-Campos, Luis F. Cofas-Vargas, Enrique W. Coronado-Aceves, Ricardo A. González-Hernández, Pablo Hernández-Peralta, Daniel Juárez-López, Paola A. Ortega-Portilla, Sara Restrepo-Pineda, Patricio Zelada-Cordero, Mauricio A. Trujillo-Roldán

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


SARS-CoV-2 is a novel β-coronavirus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic disease, which spread rapidly, infecting more than 134 million people, and killing almost 2.9 million thus far. Based on the urgent need for therapeutic and prophylactic strategies, the identification and characterization of antibodies has been accelerated, since they have been fundamental in treating other viral diseases. Here, we summarized in an integrative manner the present understanding of the immune response and physiopathology caused by SARS-CoV-2, including the activation of the humoral immune response in SARS-CoV-2 infection and therefore, the synthesis of antibodies. Furthermore, we also discussed about the antibodies that can be generated in COVID-19 convalescent sera and their associated clinical studies, including a detailed characterization of a variety of human antibodies and identification of antibodies from other sources, which have powerful neutralizing capacities. Accordingly, the development of effective treatments to mitigate COVID-19 is expected. Finally, we reviewed the challenges faced in producing potential therapeutic antibodies and nanobodies by cell factories at an industrial level while ensuring their quality, efficacy, and safety.

Original languageEnglish
Article number88
JournalMicrobial Cell Factories
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


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