Listeners’ patterns of interaction with help options: Towards empirically-based pedagogy

Mónica Stella Cárdenas-Claros, Astrid Campos-Ibaceta, Jimmy Vera-Saavedra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This multiple case study examined L2 listener patterns of interaction with help options in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) materials. Thirteen students enrolled in an initial English teacher education program interacted with six one-hour listening tasks constructed around talks on technology. Talks and associated exercises were uploaded to an online, self-regulated platform that provides listeners with different routes of interaction and access to one-click-away help options in the form of listening tips, culture/technology/biology notes, transcripts, a glossary, keywords, audio/video control bars, and an online dictionary. Interactions were recorded using screen capture technology and complemented with semi-structured interviews. Identified patterns of interaction are presented by section (pre-, while, and post-listening); type of exercise (vocabulary activation, multiple-choice, dictation-cloze, sentence completion, and extension activity); and session (1 through 6). Reasons for help option use are mapped onto identified patterns and are tested for consistency. The findings inform an underlying set of guidelines for listening pedagogy. Study limitations along with avenues for research are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-134
Number of pages24
JournalLanguage Learning and Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Help Options
  • Listening Pedagogy
  • Technology-Mediated Listening


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