Education is one of the main factors that promote social mobility. Secondary education is important for the development of upper cognitive processes as for the destiny of the individuals, once they graduate of the school system. Scientific education, by means of the generation of scientific competence, can collaborate strongly in this development. At international and national level, the use of scientific inquiry is promoted as an effective pedagogical focus in the development of these competences, especially, at contexts of high vulnerability. The present work exposes some key features that teachers should have to implement this pedagogical focus. Finally, the role of science secondary teacher education is discussed.