Human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), a common childhood exanthema. Immunocompromised patients risk developing chronic infections leading to pure red blood cell aplasia. Herein we have reported our experience with two pediatric renal transplant recipients who had severe pure red cell aplasia in the early period after surgery, accompanying PVB19 infection. First Case: A 6-year-old boy underwent pro emptive living-related renal transplantation in September 2006. On day 4, he developed abdominal discomfort and diarrhea. After transplantation, he began an asymptomatic drop in hematocrit without reticulocytosis, which was unresponsive to recombinant erythropoietin. Diarrhea also persisted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the gastrointestinal tract. PVB19 was confirmed by PCR on a bone marrow sample. He was transfused with packed red cells and treated with ganciclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). His hematocrit increased and diarrhea ended. Six months later anemia recurred requiring a second infusion of IVIG. Subsequently he has done well. Second Case: A 15-year-old boy received a living-related renal transplant in October 2006, after 2 years on automated peritoneal dialysis. One month later he developed a progressive, nonregenerative anemia. A bone marrow aspirate confirmed a PVB19 infection by PCR. He received a blood transfusion and IVIG with a favorable response. Conclusions: The presence of persistent anemia in immunocompromised hosts with a low reticulocyte count suggests PVB19 infection. IVIG therapy is effective to treat chronic PVB19 infections.
|Number of pages||4|
|State||Published - Nov 2008|