Lactulose and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are well recognized prebiotics derived from lactose. In the synthesis of lactulose with β-galactosidases GOS are also produced, but the ratio of lactulose and GOS in the product can be tuned at will, depending on the operation conditions, so to obtain an optimal product distribution in terms of prebiotic potential. The selectivity of fermentation of each carbohydrate alone as well as mixtures of both was determined using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures with faecal inoculum. Within the experimental range considered, lactulose/GOS molar ratio of 4 resulted in the highest selectivity for Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus, so this ratio was selected as the target for the synthesis of lactulose from fructose and lactose with Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. Synthesis was optimized using response surface methodology, considering temperature, initial concentrations of acceptor sugars and fructose/lactose molar ratio as key variables, with the aim of maximizing lactulose yield at the optimal product distribution in terms of prebiotic potential (lactulose/GOS molar ratio of 4). Under optimal conditions (50. °C, 50%w/w total initial concentrations of sugars and fructose/lactose molar ratio of 6.44), lactulose yield of 0.26. g of lactulose produced per g of initial lactose was obtained at the optimal product distribution.