TY - JOUR

T1 - Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the late Universe and glimpses of the early Universe phase transitions à la baryogenesis

AU - Sami, M.

AU - Gannouji, Radouane

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 World Scientific Publishing Company.

PY - 2021

Y1 - 2021

N2 - Spontaneous symmetry breaking is the foundation of electroweak unification and serves as an integral part of the model building beyond the standard model of particle physics and it also finds interesting applications in the late Universe. We review development related to obtaining the late cosmic acceleration from spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Universe at large scales. This phenomenon is best understood through Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions which we briefly describe. Hereafter, we present elements of spontaneous symmetry breaking in relativistic field theory. We then discuss the "symmetron"scenario-based upon symmetry breaking in the late Universe which is realized by using a specific form of conformal coupling. However, the model is faced with "NO GO"for late-time acceleration due to local gravity constraints. We argue that the problem can be circumvented by using the massless λφ4 theory coupled to massive neutrino matter. As for the early Universe, spontaneous symmetry breaking finds its interesting applications in the study of electroweak phase transition. To this effect, we first discuss in detail the Ginzburg-Landau theory of first-order phase transitions and then apply it to electroweak phase transition including technical discussions on bubble nucleation and sphaleron transitions. We provide a pedagogical exposition of dynamics of electroweak phase transition and emphasize the need to go beyond the standard model of particle physics for addressing the baryogenesis problem. Review ends with a brief discussion on Affleck-Dine mechanism and spontaneous baryogenesis. Appendixes include technical details on essential ingredients of baryogenesis, sphaleron solution, one-loop finite temperature effective potential and dynamics of bubble nucleation.

AB - Spontaneous symmetry breaking is the foundation of electroweak unification and serves as an integral part of the model building beyond the standard model of particle physics and it also finds interesting applications in the late Universe. We review development related to obtaining the late cosmic acceleration from spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Universe at large scales. This phenomenon is best understood through Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions which we briefly describe. Hereafter, we present elements of spontaneous symmetry breaking in relativistic field theory. We then discuss the "symmetron"scenario-based upon symmetry breaking in the late Universe which is realized by using a specific form of conformal coupling. However, the model is faced with "NO GO"for late-time acceleration due to local gravity constraints. We argue that the problem can be circumvented by using the massless λφ4 theory coupled to massive neutrino matter. As for the early Universe, spontaneous symmetry breaking finds its interesting applications in the study of electroweak phase transition. To this effect, we first discuss in detail the Ginzburg-Landau theory of first-order phase transitions and then apply it to electroweak phase transition including technical discussions on bubble nucleation and sphaleron transitions. We provide a pedagogical exposition of dynamics of electroweak phase transition and emphasize the need to go beyond the standard model of particle physics for addressing the baryogenesis problem. Review ends with a brief discussion on Affleck-Dine mechanism and spontaneous baryogenesis. Appendixes include technical details on essential ingredients of baryogenesis, sphaleron solution, one-loop finite temperature effective potential and dynamics of bubble nucleation.

KW - baryogenesis

KW - dark energy

KW - phase transition

KW - Spontaneous symmetry breaking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85116793827&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1142/S0218271821300056

DO - 10.1142/S0218271821300056

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85116793827

JO - International Journal of Modern Physics D

JF - International Journal of Modern Physics D

SN - 0218-2718

M1 - 2130005

ER -