Although most of the school violence literature is focused on peer victimization, interest is growing in teachers being victimized by their students. However, there is far less interest in students being victimized by their teachers, patterns of mutual victimization, and how they are associated with other school factors. Using the conceptual framework of school violence in evolving contexts, the present study examined teacher-to-student victimization in Chile and tested, for the first time, the associations of student-to-teacher victimization, peer victimization, school safety, classroom climate, and school climate at the individual and school levels. The sample consisted of 50,344 students (51.6% female) in Grades 5-8 in 431 schools in Chilean public-funded schools. Findings indicated that verbal types of teacher-student mutual victimization were more prevalent than physical and sexual victimization. Teacher-to-student victimization was higher among male and younger students. Multilevel analyses showed that student-to-teacher victimization, school safety, classroom climate, and school climate were associated with teacher-to-student victimization. We discuss the need for whole-school approaches that enhance social and academic support from teachers to reduce mutual forms of victimization and suggest a public health approach that places the school in the center.
- School violence