This study addresses how the incidence rate of strong O vi absorbers in a galaxy’s circumgalactic medium (CGM) depends on galaxy mass and, independently, on the amount of star formation in the galaxy. We use Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph absorption spectroscopy of quasars to measure O vi absorption within 400 projected kpc and 300 km s−1 of 52 galaxies with M * ∼ 3 × 1010 M ⊙. The galaxies have redshifts 0.12 < z < 0.6, stellar masses 1010.1 M ⊙ < M * < 1010.9 M ⊙, and spectroscopic classifications as star-forming or passive. We compare the incidence rates of high column density O vi absorption (N O VI ≥ 1014.3 cm−2) near star-forming and passive galaxies in two narrow ranges of stellar mass and, separately, in a matched range of halo mass. In all three mass ranges, the O vi covering fraction within 150 kpc is higher around star-forming galaxies than around passive galaxies with greater than 3σ-equivalent statistical significance. On average, the CGM of star-forming galaxies with M * ∼ 3 × 1010 M ⊙ contains more O vi than the CGM of passive galaxies with the same mass. This difference is evidence for a CGM transformation that happens together with galaxy quenching and is not driven primarily by halo mass.