Since the prorenin receptor (PRR) was first reported, its physiological role in many cellular processes has been under intense scrutiny. The PRR is currently recognized as a multifunctional receptor with major roles as an accessory protein of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and as an intermediary in the Wnt signaling pathway. As a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the PRR has demonstrated to be of relevance in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) because it can activate prorenin and enhance the enzymatic activity of renin, thus promoting angiotensin II formation. Indeed, there is an association between PRR gene polymorphisms and CVD. Independent of angiotensin II, the activation of the PRR further stimulates intracellular signals linked to fibrosis. Studies using tissues and cells from a variety of organs and systems have supported its roles in multiple functions, although some remain controversial. In the brain, the PRR appears to be involved in the central regulation of blood pressure via activation of RAS- and non-RAS-dependent mechanisms. In the heart, the PRR promotes atrial structural and electrical remodeling. Nonetheless, animals overexpressing the PRR do not exhibit cardiac injury. In the kidney, the PRR is involved in the development of ureteric bud branching, urine concentration, and regulation of blood pressure. There is great interest in the PRR contributions to T cell homeostasis and to the development of visceral and brown fat. In this mini-review, we discuss the evidence for the pathophysiological roles of the PRR with emphasis in CVD.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|State||Published - Feb 2018|
- Cardiovascular disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Soluble prorenin receptor