Towards roadmap to implement blockchain in healthcare systems based on a maturity model

Muhammad Azeem Akbar, Víctor Leiva, Saima Rafi, Syed Furqan Qadri, Sajjad Mahmood, Ahmed Alsanad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Healthcare systems face various issues related to complex networks of intermediaries and a lack of transaction traceability. The most critical issues are the fragmentation of healthcare data, obstacles in providing efficient research and services, lack of clinical trial reporting, high cost and mismanagement of the drug supply chain, patient data security, and fake drugs. Blockchain technology has the potential to address these criticalities as it has in build traceability mechanisms and promises new business models by enabling incentive structures. This potential of blockchain gathers a high interest in the health industry. However, the implementation of blockchain in healthcare faces various issues as well. Currently, there are no practice-oriented maturity models to improve such an implementation. In this paper, we present a roadmap to develop a maturity model for blockchain in healthcare (MMBH) based on critical barriers (CBs), critical success factors (CSFs), and the best practices for blockchain implementation in healthcare systems. As a first step to develop the MMBH, in this paper, we present the initial results of a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify critical success factors for implementing blockchain in healthcare systems. We also applied fuzzy technique order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to prioritize the identified CSFs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2500
JournalJournal of Software: Evolution and Process
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • blockchain technology
  • critical barriers and success factors
  • drug supply chain
  • systematic and multivocal literature reviews
  • traceability


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