## Abstract

In this paper, we study gravitational lensing in the weak field limits and the shadow by charged black holes in non-linear electrodynamics corrections. To find the deflection angle in vacuum (non-plasma) up to the leading order terms, we compute the optical Gaussian curvature from optical metric and utilize the Gauss-Bonnet theorem by applying Gibbons and Werner's technique. Also, we derive the bending angle in plasma and dark matter mediums and observe that the bending angle increases by increasing the effects of these mediums. Further, in vacuum and plasma mediums, we investigate the graphical behavior of the bending angle with respect to the impact parameter u and notice that the bending angle exponentially decreases. Moreover, we calculate the Hawking temperature using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem and compare it with a standard method of computing the Hawking temperature. Furthermore, we investigate the bound of the greybody factor and graphically examine that bound converges to the 1. We relate our obtained results with the results of black holes given in the literature. Finally, we have considered exploring the effect of non-linear electrodynamics (NLED), plasma and dark matter on the black hole's shadow radius to broaden the study's scope. Results for the shadow indicate that the three parameters give different deviations to the shadow radius. Interestingly, while plasma affects both the photonsphere and shadow, dark matter only influences the shadow.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 2350040 |

Journal | International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics |

Volume | 20 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Mar 2023 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Keywords

- Gauss-Bonnet theorem
- General relativity
- black hole
- greybody
- hawking temperature
- plasma medium
- shadow cast