The effect of alkali metal chlorides on the viscoelastic behavior and yielding properties of silica suspensions was studied through creep-recovery and dynamic oscillatory tests with stress control. Then, the viscoelasticity of the pulps was correlated with the silica zeta potential, aggregate size, and the percentage of cations adsorbed on the surface of the ore. The results indicate that larger cations are more prone to adhere to the silica surface, which increases the number of ionic bonds that bind the particles. This generates stronger particle networks and a greater agglomeration of particles, especially those smaller than 10 μm. As the size of the bare cations increases, the rheological response provides higher values of yield stress, complex viscosity, and viscoelastic moduli, but in turn, pulps undergo minor deformations under the application of stress. Dynamic oscillatory tests suggest structural changes, with the phase angle following the inverse relationship with the bare cation size, indicating that the liquid-like character of the pulps increases as the size of the cations increases.