In this work the antiproliferative activity of pectic substances obtained by different extraction methods from defatted rapeseed cake was assessed on cancer cell lines. The process consisted of sequential treatment with alkalized water (pH ∼ 8), EDTA (0.01 M), alkaline protease (Alkalase 2.4L) and a commercial pectinase preparation (Viscozyme L or Pectinex Ultra SP-L). Pectic extracts identification was performed using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. FT-IR and HPLC-IR results suggest that the neutral pectic extracts produced would be arabinogalactans and β-galactans. All the pectic substances extracted (acid and neutral) from RSC exhibited antiproliferative activity, being more effective on MCF-7 cells than Caco-2. The most effective pectic extract was obtained by Alkalase 2.4 L which killed over 80% of MCF-7 cells and 60% of Caco-2 cells. At less than 10 mg/mL pectic extracts enriched in neutral sugars also exhibited antiproliferative activity (50 and 40%, respectively), which was superior to the modified citric pectins activity at the same concentration for the breast cancer cell line (61.6% for MCF-7 and 49.9% for Caco-2 cells). These results show that the antiproliferative activity depends on both the type of pectin (acid or neutral) and the extraction procedure.