Augmented reality-based learning for the comprehension of cardiac physiology in undergraduate biomedical students. Adv Physiol Educ 44: 314-322, 2020; doi:10.1152/advan.00137.2019.-The integrated mechanisms of heart contraction are some of the most complex processes for undergraduate biomedical students to understand. Visual models have the potential to enhance learning environments by providing visual representations of complex mechanisms. Despite their benefits, the use of visual models in undergraduate classrooms is still limited. For this study, we tested the effect of a learning sequence of activities related to the cardiac cycle using an augmented reality (AR) application for smartphones and tablets. We were interested in understanding the ability of students to draw and label figures reflecting cardiac function after experiencing the learning sequence using AR. Undergraduate students of the biomedical sciences (control n = 43, experimental n = 58) were enrolled in the course, and their drawings were evaluated using multiple levels of complexity (1 = basic to 5 = complex) through a pre-/posttest structure that included a learning sequence based on AR in the experimental group and regular lecture-based activities in the control group. The complexity of students' drawings was evaluated on the anatomical, physiological, and molecular aspects of heart contraction. We used Cohen's kappa index for interrater reliability when determining the complexity of drawings. Control and experimental groups showed no differences in baseline knowledge (preexamination quiz). The students who experienced the AR activities showed an increase in the complexity of representation levels in posttest results and also showed a significant difference in scores for the final exam in the heart physiology course. Our results indicate that using AR enhances the comprehension of anatomical and physiological concepts of the cardiac cycle for undergraduate biomedical students.