Aims. We constrain the mass, velocity-anisotropy, and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of the z = 0.44 CLASH cluster MACS J1206.2-0847, using the projected phase-space distribution of cluster galaxies in combination with gravitational lensing. Methods. We use an unprecedented data-set of â‰600 redshifts for cluster members, obtained as part of a VLT/VIMOS large program, to constrain the cluster mass profile over the radial range ~0-5 Mpc (0-2.5 virial radii) using the MAMPOSSt and Caustic methods. We then add external constraints from our previous gravitational lensing analysis. We invert the Jeans equation to obtain the velocity-anisotropy profiles of cluster members. With the mass-density and velocity-anisotropy profiles we then obtain the first determination of a cluster pseudo-phase-space density profile. Results. The kinematics and lensing determinations of the cluster mass profile are in excellent agreement. This is very well fitted by a NFW model with mass M200 = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 1015 M âŠ™ and concentration c200 = 6 ± 1, only slightly higher than theoretical expectations. Other mass profile models also provide acceptable fits to our data, of (slightly) lower (Burkert, Hernquist, and Softened Isothermal Sphere) or comparable (Einasto) quality than NFW. The velocity anisotropy profiles of the passive and star-forming cluster members are similar, close to isotropic near the center and increasingly radial outside. Passive cluster members follow extremely well the theoretical expectations for the pseudo-phase-space density profile and the relation between the slope of the mass-density profile and the velocity anisotropy. Star-forming cluster members show marginal deviations from theoretical expectations. Conclusions. This is the most accurate determination of a cluster mass profile out to a radius of 5 Mpc, and the only determination of the velocity-anisotropy and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of both passive and star-forming galaxies for an individual cluster. These profiles provide constraints on the dynamical history of the cluster and its galaxies. Prospects for extending this analysis to a larger cluster sample are discussed.