This paper provides a synopsis of the Chilean Asteraceae genera according to the most recent classification. Asteraceae is the richest family within the native Chilean flora, with a total of 121 genera and c. 863 species, currently classified in 18 tribes. The genera are distributed along the whole latitudinal gradient in Chile, with a centre of richness at 33°-34° S. Almost one-third of the genera show small to medium-small ranges of distribution, while two-thirds have medium-large to large latitudinal ranges of distribution. Of the 115 mainland genera, 46% have their main distribution in the central Mediterranean zone between 27°-37° S. Also of the mainland genera, 53% occupy both coastal and Andean environments, while 33% can be considered as strictly Andean and 20% as strictly coastal genera. The biogeographical analysis of relationships allows the distinction of several floristic elements and generalized tracks: the most marked floristic element is the Neotropical, followed by the antitropical and the endemic element. The biogeographical analysis provides important insights into the origin and evolution of the Chilean Asteraceae flora. The presence of many localized and endemic taxa has direct conservation implications.