Population-based approaches have given us new search strategies and ideas in order to solve optimization problems. Usually, these methods are based on the performance carried out by a finite number of agents, which by the interaction between them they evolve and work all over the search space. Also, it is well-known that the correct employment of parameter values in this kind of method can positively impact their performance and behavior. In this context, the present work focuses on the design of a hybrid architecture which smartly balances the population size on run-time. In order to smartly balance and control the population size, a modular approach, named Linear Modular Population Balancer (LMPB), is proposed. The main ideas behind the designed architecture include the solving strategy behind a population-based metaheuristic, the influence of learning components based on multiple statistical modeling methods which transform the dynamic data generated into knowledge, and the possibilities to tackle both discrete and continuous optimization problems. In this regard, three modules are proposed for LMPB, which concern tasks such as the management of the population-based algorithm, parameter setting, probabilities, learning methods, and selection mechanism for the population size to employ. In order to test the viability and effectiveness of our proposed approach, we solve a set of well-known benchmark functions and the multidimensional knapsack problem (MKP). Additionally, we illustrate promising solving results, compare them against state-of-the-art methods which have proved to be good options for solving optimization problems, and give solid arguments for future work in the necessity to keep evolving this type of proposed architecture.