Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae) is a keystone mistletoe from the South American temperate rainforests. As most mistletoes, T. corymbosus relies on biotic pollination and seed dispersal, which may cause population structure. For a better understanding of its ecology, we isolated and characterized ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. We used 454 Next Generation Sequencing to build a microsatellite library from a high quality DNA sample. We tested 90 sequences from which we obtained ten polymorphic markers. In order to assess their variability, the novel markers were tested in 48 individuals from three locations of the Valdivian Coastal Reserve in Chile. We also estimated genetic differences between pairs of populations using the F ST statistic. The mean number of alleles per locus in the 48 individuals studied was 7.1 (2–17 alleles per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.298 to 0.634 and from 0.310 to 0.881, respectively. There were genetic differences among the three populations assessed, according to the F ST values (ranging from 0.048 to 0.100, all significant) and, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3.9 to 5.1. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for T. corymbosus, and they arise as a powerful tool for studying population structure, genetic diversity and gene flow at the landscape scale, along its distribution.