The quality control for fruit maturity inspection is a key issue in fruit packaging and international trade. The quantification of Soluble Solids (SS) in fruits gives a good approximation of the total sugar concentration at the ripe stage, and on the other hand, SS alone or in combination with acidity is highly related to the acceptability of the fruit by consumers. The non-destructive analysis based on Visible (VIS) and Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a popular technique for the assessment of fruit quality. To improve the accuracy of fruit maturity inspection, VIS-NIR spectra models based on machine learning techniques are proposed for the non-destructive evaluation of soluble solids in considering a range of variations associated with varieties of stones fruit species (peach, nectarine, and plum). In this work, we propose a novel approach based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the classification of the fruits into species and then a Feedforward Neural Network (FNN) to extract the information of VIS-NIR spectra to estimate the SS content of the fruit associated to several varieties. A classification accuracy of 98.9% was obtained for the CNN classification model and a correlation coefficient of Rc>0.7109 for the SS estimation of the FNN models was obtained. The results reported show the potential of this method for a fast and on-line classification of fruits and estimation of SS concentration.