This paper focuses on two main topics: presenting a novel framework for assessing the sustainability of a productive process and the application of the framework to the specific case of Chile. The proposed framework integrates green supply chain management and circular economy within the sustainability perspective as drivers for improvements in sustainable development. Within the framework, the greening factor is introduced as a new concept that measures the required effort for a productive process to become sustainable. On one hand, the framework aims at computing the greening factor based on the impacts of resources exploitation and products generation. Additionally, the greening factor computation was designed based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of economic, social, and environmental mainstays. On the other hand, this paper presents a general application of the framework on the five biggest Chilean industries, i.e., mining, wine, forest, agriculture, and aquaculture. Based on the presented generalized application, it is possible to foresee the potentiality of Chile becoming a green country in spite of its productive matrix being mainly based on primary industries.