Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides with a central β-hairpin structure able to bind to microbial components. Mining sequence databases for ALFs allowed us to show the remarkable diversity of ALF sequences in shrimp. We found at least seven members of the ALF family (Groups A to G), including two novel Groups (F and G), all of which are encoded by different loci with conserved gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene expansion and subsequent diversification of the ALF family occurred in crustaceans before shrimp speciation occurred. The transcriptional profile of ALFs was compared in terms of tissue distribution, response to two pathogens and during shrimp development in Litopenaeus vannamei, the most cultivated species. ALFs were found to be constitutively expressed in hemocytes and to respond differently to tissue damage. While synthetic β-hairpins of Groups E and G displayed both antibacterial and antifungal activities, no activity was recorded for Group F β-hairpins. Altogether, our results showed that ALFs form a family of shrimp AMPs that has been the subject of intense diversification. The different genes differ in terms of tissue expression, regulation and function. These data strongly suggest that multiple selection pressures have led to functional diversification of ALFs in shrimp.