In this paper, processing methods of Fourier optics implemented in a digital holographic microscopy system are presented. The proposed methodology is based on the possibility of the digital holography in carrying out the whole reconstruction of the recorded wave front and consequently, the determination of the phase and intensity distribution in any arbitrary plane located between the object and the recording plane. In this way, in digital holographic microscopy the field produced by the objective lens can be reconstructed along its propagation, allowing the reconstruction of the back focal plane of the lens, so that the complex amplitudes of the Fraunhofer diffraction, or equivalently the Fourier transform, of the light distribution across the object can be known. The manipulation of Fourier transform plane makes possible the design of digital methods of optical processing and image analysis. The proposed method has a great practical utility and represents a powerful tool in image analysis and data processing. The theoretical aspects of the method are presented, and its validity has been demonstrated using computer generated holograms and images simulations of microscopic objects.