Lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins (LBPs) and bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins (BPIs) are effectors of the innate immune response which act in a coordinated manner to bind and neutralize the LPS present in Gram negative bacteria. The structural organization that confers the function of LBPs and BPIs is very similar, however, they are antagonistic to each other. In this work, we characterized two LBP/BPIs from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, namely ApLBP/BPI1 and ApLBP/BPI2. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses of ApLBP/BPIs indicated that both isoforms display classic characteristics of LBP/BPIs from other invertebrates. Additionally, ApLBP/BPIs are constitutively expressed in scallop tissues and their transcript expression is upregulated in hemocytes and gills in response to an immune challenge. However, some structural characteristics of functional importance for the biological activity of these molecules, such as the net charge differ substantially between ApLBP/BPI1 and ApLBP/BPI2. Furthermore, each isoform displays a specific profile of basal expression among different tissues, as well as specific patterns of expression during the activation of the immune response. Results suggest that functional specialization of ApLBP/BPIs might happen, with potential role as LBP or BPI in this species of scallop. Further research on the biological activities of ApLBP/BPIs are necessary to elucidate their participation in the scallop immune response.