In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying food and its derived ingredients that can provide beneficial effects for human health. These studies are helping to understand the bases of the ancestral use of several natural products, including native fruits as functional foods. As a result, the polyphenol profile and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from different Patagonian native berries have been described. This review aims to provide valuable information regarding fruit quality, its particular compound profile, and the feasibility of producing functional foods for human consumption to prevent disorders such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. We also discuss attempts concerning the domestication of these species and generating knowledge that strengthens their potential as traditional fruits in the food market and as a natural heritage for future generations. Finally, additional efforts are still necessary to fully understand the potential beneficial effects of the consumption of these berries on human health, the application of suitable technology for postharvest improvement, and the generation of successfully processed foods derived from Patagonian berries.