Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) is an important food in certain areas of the Andean region, where it is popularly believed to possess medicinal properties. Several studies have previously shown the potential of this tuber as a source of bioactive compounds. Traditionally, the tuber is exposed to the sun before consumption, in order to reduce its bitterness. The present work aims to study, at the proteome level, the differential abundance of proteins in tubers subjected to different postharvest treatments: sun-exposure (SUN), shade (SHA), refrigeration (COLD) and shade combined with sun-exposure (SHA-SUN) compared to recently harvested tubers (INIT). Results showed that sun exposure for prolonged times (9 days) resulted in increased abundance of proteins classified as heat shock proteins, intracellular traffic, disease/defense and protein degradation. Our results reflect that the sun treatment activates defense systems and osmoprotection adjustment against water loss and reactive oxygen species.