In the present work, we explore several gravitational aspects such as energy extraction (via the Penrose process and superradiance), particle collisions around a N = 2, U(1)2 rotating dyonic black hole (BH) in the gauged supergravity model. The influence of the rotation parameter (a) and the gauge coupling constant (g) on the behavior of the horizon and ergoregion of the BH is investigated. In comparison to the extremal Kerr BH, the gauge coupling constant, under certain constraints, can interestingly enhance the maximum efficiency of energy extraction through the Penrose process by almost twice. Under the same constraints, we can extract approximately 60.75% of the initial mass-energy from the BH which is noticeably higher and far different from that of the Kerr BH. The limit of energy extraction in terms of the local speeds of the fragments is also determined with the help of the Wald inequality. We discover an upper limit on the gauge coupling constant up to which superradiance is likely to occur. Finally, we estimate the center-of-mass energy (ECM) of two particles with the same rest mass moving in the equatorial plane of the BH. Our study also aims to sensitize ECM to the parameters a and g for both extremal and nonextremal spacetime. Especially, for the extremal case, an infinitely large amount of ECM can be achieved closer to the event horizon confirming a basic point of view that an extreme supergravity BH with dyons could serve as ultimate particle accelerators as compared to Kerr and any other generalized BHs in this family and other alternative theories of gravity. However, ECM for the nonextremal spacetime is shown to be finite and has an upper bound.