The genus Campuloclinium belongs to the tribe Eupatorieae, one of the largest and most complex tribes of the Compositae family in the Neotropical Region. This genus encompasses suffruticose perennial plants and one annual herbaceous species. They are mainly distributed in southeastern South America, the Brazilian cerrado and campos rupestres being the center of diversity. It is characterized by displaying highly hemispherical or conical, glabrous, and scrobiculate receptacles, and elongate achenes with a narrowly stipitate base, five pale prominent ribs, and carpopodium expanded in a narrow basal ring. The first worldwide revision of this genus recognizing 12 species is presented here. In this new taxonomic treatment C. eiteniorum has been synonymized to C. chlorolepis, C. hatschbachii to C. irwinii, and C. hickenii to C. macrocephalum. Twenty names are lectotypified, seven new synonyms are proposed, and the required combination C. scabrum is made. Descriptions and distribution maps are provided for all the accepted species, as well as an identification key and pictures for some of them.