Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the main hormone responsible for water maintenance in the body through the antidiuretic actions in the kidney. The posterior pituitary into the blood releases vasopressin formed in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic osmotic neurons are responsible to initiate the cascade for AVP actions. The effects of AVP peptide includes activation of V2 receptors which stimulate the formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and phosphorylation of water channels aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the collecting duct. AVP also has vasoconstrictor effects through V1a receptors in the vasculature, while V1b is found in the nervous system. V1a and b receptors increases intracellular Ca2 + while activation of V2 receptors of signaling pathways are related to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in kidney collecting ducts acting in coordination to stimulate water and electrolyte homeostasis. AVP potentiate formation of intratubular angiotensin II (Ang II) through V2 receptors-dependent distal tubular renin formation, contributing to Na + reabsorption. On the same way, Ang II receptors are able to potentiate the effects of V2-dependent stimulation of AQP2 abundance in the plasma membrane. The role of AVP in hypertension and renal disease has been demonstrated in pathological states with the involvement of V2 receptors in the progression of kidney damage in diabetes and also on the stimulation of intracellular pathways linked to the development of polycystic kidney.