Renin is synthesized in the principal cells of the collecting duct (CD), and its production is increased via cAMP in angiotensin (ANG) II-dependent hypertension, despite suppression of juxtaglomerular (JG) renin. Vasopressin, one of the effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the type 2-receptor (V2R), activates the cAMP/PKA/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway and aquaporin-2 expression in principal cells of the CD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that activation of V2R increases renin synthesis via PKA/CREB, independently of ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation in CD cells. Desmopressin (DDAVP; 10−6 M), a selective V2R agonist, increased renin mRNA (∼3-fold), prorenin (∼1.5-fold), and renin (∼2-fold) in cell lysates and cell culture media in the M-1 CD cell line. Cotreatment with DDAVP+H89 (PKA inhibitor) or CREB short hairpin (sh) RNA prevented this response. H89 also blunted DDAVP-induced CREB phosphorylation and nuclear localization. In 48-h water-deprived (WD) mice, prorenin-renin protein levels were increased in the renal inner medulla (∼1.4- and 1.8-fold). In WD mice treated with an ACE inhibitor plus AT1 receptor blockade, renin mRNA and prorenin protein levels were still higher than controls, while renin protein content was not changed. In M-1 cells, ANG II or DDAVP increased prorenin-renin protein levels; however, there were no further increases by combined treatment. These results indicate that in the CD the activation of the V2R stimulates renin synthesis via the PKA/CREB pathway independently of RAS, suggesting a critical role for vasopressin in the regulation of renin in the CD.